Anatomically the evolution of bipedalism has been accompanied
by a large number of skeletal changes, not just to the legs
and pelvis, but also to the vertebral column, feet and ankles,
and skull. Perhaps the most significant changes are in the
pelvic region, where the long downwards facing iliac blade
was shortened and became wide as a requirement for keeping
the center of gravity stable while walking. The shortening
and narrowing of the pelvis evolved as a requirement for
bipedality and had significant effects on the process of
human birth which is much more difficult in modern humans
than in other primates. The femur evolved into a slightly
more angular position to move the center of gravity towards
the geometric center of the body. The knee and ankle joints
became increasingly robust to better support increased weight.
Also in order to support the increased weight on each vertebra
in the upright position the human vertebral column became
S-shaped and the lumbar vertebrae became shorter and wider.
In the feet the big toe moved into alignment with the other
toes to help in forward locomotion. The arms and forearms
shortened relative to the legs making it easier to run.
The foramen magnum migrated under the skull and more anterior.
The human species developed a much larger brain than
that of other primates – typically 1,330 cc in modern humans,
over twice the size of that of a chimpanzee or gorilla.
The pattern of encephalization started with Homo habilis
which at approximately 600 cc had a brain slightly larger
than chimpanzees, and continued with Homo erectus (800-1100
cc), and reached a maximum in Neanderthals with an average
size of (1200-1900cc), larger even than Homo sapiens. The
pattern of human postnatal brain growth differs from that
of other apes (heterochrony), and allows for extended periods
of social learning and language acquisition in juvenile
humans. However, the differences between the structure of
human brains and those of other apes may be even more significant
than differences in size. The increase in volume over time
has affected different areas within the brain unequally
- the temporal lobes, which contain centers for language
processing have increased disproportionately, as has the
prefrontal cortex which has been related to complex decision
making and moderating social behavior. Encephalization has
been tied to an increasing emphasis on meat in the diet,
or with the development of cooking, and it has been proposed
that intelligence increased as a response to an increased
necessity for solving social problems as human society became
The reduced degree of sexual dimorphism is primarily
visible in the a reduction of the male canine tooth relative
to other ape species (except gibbons), but also reduced
brow ridges and general robustness of males. Another important
physiological change related to sexuality in humans was
the evolution of hidden estrus. Humans are the only ape
in which the female is fertile year round, and in which
no special signals of fertility are produced by the body
(such as genital swelling during estrus). Nonetheless humans
retain a degree of sexual dimorphism in the distribution
of body hair and subcutaneous fat, and in the overall size,
males being around 25% larger than females. These changes
taken together have been interpreted as a result of an increased
emphasis on pair bonding as a possible solution to the requirement
for increased parental investment due to the prolonged infancy
The possibility of linking humans with earlier apes
by descent only became clear after 1859 with the publication
of Charles Darwin's On the Origin of Species. This argued
for the idea of the evolution of new species from earlier
ones. Darwin's book did not address the question of
human evolution, saying only that "Light will be thrown
on the origin of man and his history".
The first debates about the nature of human evolution
arose between Thomas Huxley and Richard Owen. Huxley
argued for human evolution from apes by illustrating
many of the similarities and differences between humans
and apes, and did so particularly in his 1863 book Evidence
as to Man's Place in Nature. However, many of Darwin's
early supporters (such as Alfred Russel Wallace and
Charles Lyell) did not agree that the origin of the
mental capacities and the moral sensibilities of humans
could be explained by natural selection. Darwin applied
the theory of evolution and sexual selection to humans
when he published The Descent of Man in 1871.
The East African Fossils
During the 1960s and 1970s hundreds of fossils were
found, particularly in East Africa in the regions of
the Olduvai gorge and Lake Turkana. The driving force
in the east African researches was the Leakey family,
with Louis Leakey and his wife Mary Leakey, and later
their son Richard and daughter in-law Meave being among
the most successful fossil hunters and palaeoanthropologists.
From the fossil beds of Olduvai and Lake Turkana they
amassed fossils of Asutralopithecines, early Homo, and
even Homo erectus. These finds cemented Africa as the
cradle of human kind. In the 1980s Ethiopia emerged
as the new hot spot of palaeoanthropology as "Lucy",
the most complete fossil member of the species Australopithecus
afarensis, was found by Don Johanson in Hadar in the
desertic Middle Awash region of northern Ethiopia. This
area would be the location of many new hominin fossils
particularly those uncovered by the teams of Tim White
in the 1990s, such as Ardipithecus ramidus.
The Genetic revolution
The genetic revolution in studies of human evolution
started when Vincent Sarich and Allan Wilson measured
the strength of immunological cross-reactions of blood
serum albumin between pairs of creatures, including
humans and African apes (chimpanzees and gorillas).
The strength of the reaction could be expressed numerically
as an Immunological Distance, which was in turn proportional
to the number of amino acid differences between homologous
proteins in different species. By constructing a calibration
curve of the ID of species' pairs with known divergence
times in the fossil record, the data could be used as
a molecular clock to estimate the times of divergence
of pairs with poorer or unknown fossil records. In their
seminal paper in 1967 in Science, Sarich and Wilson
estimated the divergence time of humans and apes as
four to five million years ago, at a time when standard
interpretations of the fossil record gave this divergence
as at least 10 to as much as 30 million years. Subsequent
fossil discoveries, notably Lucy, and reinterpretation
of older fossil materials, notably Ramapithecus, showed
the younger estimates to be correct and validated the
albumin method. Application of the molecular clock principle
revolutionized the study of molecular evolution.
Anthropologists in the 1980s were divided regarding
some details of reproductive barriers and migratory
dispersals of the Homo genus. Subsequently, genetics
has been used to investigate and resolve these issues.
The Out-of-Africa model proposed that modern H. sapiens
speciated in Africa recently (approx. 200,000 years
ago) and their subsequent migration through Eurasia
resulted in complete replacement of other Homo species.
This model has been developed by Chris Stringer and
Peter Andrews. In contrast, the multiregional hypothesis
proposed that Homo genus contained only a single interconnected
population like it does today (not separate species),
and that its evolution took place worldwide continuously
over the last couple million years. This model was proposed
in 1988 by Milford H. Wolpoff.
Progress in DNA sequencing, specifically mitochondrial
DNA (mtDNA) and then Y-chromosome DNA advanced the understanding
of human origins. Sequencing mtDNA and Y-DNA sampled
from a wide range of indigenous populations revealed
ancestral information relating to both male and female
genetic heritage. Aligned in genetic tree differences
were interpreted as supportive of a recent single origin.
Analyses have shown a greater diversity of DNA patterns
throughout Africa, consistent with the idea that Africa
is the ancestral home of mitochondrial Eve and Y-chromosomal
Adam. Out of Africa has gained support from research
using female mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) and the male
Y chromosome. After analysing genealogy trees constructed
using 133 types of mtDNA, researchers concluded that
all were descended from a female African progenitor,
dubbed Mitochondrial Eve. Out of Africa is also supported
by the fact that mitochondrial genetic diversity is
highest among African populations. A broad study of
African genetic diversity, headed by Sarah Tishkoff,
found the San people had the greatest genetic diversity
among the 113 distinct populations sampled, making them
one of 14 "ancestral population clusters". The research
also located the origin of modern human migration in
south-western Africa, near the coastal border of Namibia
and Angola. The fossil evidence was insufficient for
Richard Leakey to resolve this debate. Studies of haplogroups
in Y-chromosomal DNA and mitochondrial DNA have largely
supported a recent African origin. Evidence from autosomal
DNA also predominantly supports a Recent African origin.
However evidence for archaic admixture in modern humans
had been suggested by some studies. Recent sequencing
of Neanderthal and Denisovan genomes shows that some
admixture occurred. Modern humans outside Africa have
2-4% Neanderthal alleles in their genome, and some Melanesians
have an additional 4-6% of Denisovan alleles. These
new results do not contradict the Out of Africa model,
except in its strictest interpretation. After recovery
from a genetic bottleneck that might be due to the Toba
supervolcano catastrophe, a fairly small group left
Africa and briefly interbred with Neanderthals, probably
in the middle-east or even North Africa before their
departure. Their still predominantly-African descendants
spread to populate the world. A fraction in turn interbred
with Denisovans, probably in south-east Asia, before
populating Melanesia. HLA haplotypes of Neanderthal
and Denisova origin have been identified in modern Eurasian
and Oceanian populations.
There are still differing theories on whether there
was a single exodus or several. A multiple dispersal
model involves the Southern Dispersal theory, which
has gained support in recent years from genetic, linguistic
and archaeological evidence. In this theory, there was
a coastal dispersal of modern humans from the Horn of
Africa around 70,000 years ago. This group helped to
populate Southeast Asia and Oceania, explaining the
discovery of early human sites in these areas much earlier
than those in the Levant. A second wave of humans dispersed
across the Sinai peninsula into Asia, resulting in the
bulk of human population for Eurasia. This second group
possessed a more sophisticated tool technology and was
less dependent on coastal food sources than the original
group. Much of the evidence for the first group's expansion
would have been destroyed by the rising sea levels at
the end of each glacial maximum. The multiple dispersal
model is contradicted by studies indicating that the
populations of Eurasia and the populations of Southeast
Asia and Oceania are all descended from the same mitochondrial
DNA lineages, which support a single migration out of
Africa that gave rise to all non-African populations.
The evidence on which scientific accounts of human
evolution is based comes from many fields of natural
science. The main sources of knowledge about the evolutionary
process has traditionally been the fossil record, but
since the development of genetics beginning in the 1970s
DNA analyses has come to occupy a place of comparable
importance. The studies of ontogeny, phylogeny and especially
evolutionary developmental biology of both vertebrates
and invertebrates offer considerable insight into the
evolution of all life, including how humans evolved.
The specific study of the origin and life of humans
is anthropology, particularly paleoanthropology which
focuses on the study of human prehistory.
Evidence from molecular biology
Human evolutionary genetics studies how one human
genome differs from the other, the evolutionary past
that gave rise to it, and its current effects. Differences
between genomes have anthropological, medical and forensic
implications and applications. Genetic data can provide
important insight into human evolution.
Recent research casts doubt on the "Out of Africa"
hypothesis. The high genetic diversity in Sub-Saharan
Africa has been shown to be a result of interbreeding
with non-human lineages after Sapiens migrated there
from Eurasia, where they arose.
The closest living relatives of humans are gorillas
(genus Gorilla) and chimpanzees (Genus Pan). With the
sequencing of both the Human and Chimpanzee genome,
current estimates of similarity between human and chimpanzee
DNA sequences range between 95% and 99%. By using the
technique called the molecular clock which estimates
the time required for the number of divergent mutations
to accumulate between two lineages, the approximate
date for the split between lineages can be calculated.
The gibbons (hylobatidae) and orangutans ( genus Pongo)
were the first groups to split from the line leading
to the humans, then gorillas followed by the chimpanzees
and bonobos. The splitting date between human and chimpanzee
lineages is placed around 4-8 million years ago during
the late Miocene epoch. Genetic evidence has also been
employed to resolve the question of whether there was
any gene flow between early modern humans and Neanderthals,
and to arrive enhance our understanding of the early
human migration patterns and splitting dates. By comparing
the parts of the genome that are not under natural selection
and which therefore accumulate mutations at a fairly
steady rate, it is possible to reconstruct a genetic
tree incorporating the entire human species since the
last shared ancestor. Each time a certain mutation (Single
nucleotide polymorphism) appears in an individual and
is passed on to his or her descendants a haplogroup
is formed including all of the descendants of the individual
who will also carry that mutation. By comparing mitochondrial
DNA which is inherited only from the mother, geneticists
have concluded that the last female common ancestor
whose genetic marker is found in all modern humans,
the so-called mitochondrial Eve, must have lived around
200,000 years ago.
Evidence from the fossil record
There is little fossil evidence for the divergence
of the gorilla, chimpanzee and hominin lineages. The
earliest fossils that have been proposed as members
of the hominin lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis
dating from 7 million years ago, and Orrorin tugenensis
dating from 5.7 million years ago and Ardipithecus kadabba
dating to 5.6 million years ago. Each of these have
been argued to be a bipedal ancestor of later hominins,
but in each cases the claims have been contested. It
is also possible that either of these species are ancestors
of another branch of African apes, or that they represent
a shared ancestor between hominins and other apes. The
question of the relation between these early fossil
species and the hominin lineage is still to be resolved.
From these early species the Australopithecines arose
around 4 million years ago diverged into robust (also
called Paranthropus) and gracile branches, one of which
(possibly A. garhi) probably went on to become ancestors
of the genus Homo. The australopithecine species that
are best represented in the fossil record is Australopithecus
Afarensis with more than a hundred fossil individuals
represented, found from Northern Ethiopia (such as the
famous "Lucy"), to Kenya, and South Africa. Fossils
of robust australopithecines such as A. robustus (or
alternatively Paranthropus robustus) and A./P. boisei
are particularly abundant in South Africa at sites such
as Kromdraai and Swartkrans, and around Lake Turkana
The earliest members of the genus Homo are Homo habilis
which evolved around 2.3 million years ago. Homo habilis
is the first species for which we have positive evidence
of use of stone tools. They developed the oldowan lithic
technology, named after the Olduvai gorge where the
first specimens were found. Some scientists consider
Homo rudolfensis, a group larger bodied group of fossils
with similar morphology to the original H. habilis fossils
to be a separate species while others consider them
to be part of H. habilis - simply representing species
internal variation, or perhaps even sexual dimorphism.
The brains of these early hominins were about the same
size as that of a chimpanzee, and their main adaptation
was bipedalism as an adaptation to terrestrial living.
During the next million years a process of encephalization
began, and with the arrival of Homo erectus in the fossil
record, cranial capacity had doubled. Homo erectus were
the first of the hominina to leave Africa, and these
species spread through Africa, Asia, and Europe between
1.3 to 1.8 million years ago. One population of H. erectus,
also sometimes classified as a separate species Homo
ergaster, stayed in Africa and evolved into Homo sapiens.
It is believed that these species were the first to
use fire and complex tools. The earliest transitional
fossils between H. ergaster/erectus and '' Archaic H.
sapiens are from Africa such as Homo rhodesiensis, but
seemingly transitional forms are also found at Dmanisi,
Georgia. These descendants of African H. erectus spread
through Eurasia from ca. 500,000 years ago evolving
into H. antecessor, H. heidelbergensis and H. neanderthalensis.
The earliest fossils of Anatomically modern humans are
from the Middle Paleolithic, about 200,000 years ago
such as the Omo remains of Ethiopia, later fossils from
Skhul in Israel and Southern Europe begin around 90,000
As modern humans spread out from Africa they encountered
other hominins such as Homo neanderthalensis and the
so-called Denisovans, who may have evolved from populations
of Homo erectus that had left Africa already around
2 million years ago. The nature of interaction between
early humans and these sister species has been a long
standing source of controversy, the question being whether
humans replaced these earlier species or whether they
were in fact similar enough to interbreed, in which
case these earlier populations may have contributed
genetic material to modern humans. Recent studies of
the Human and Neanderthal genomes indicate that there
was in fact gene flow between archaic Homo sapiens and
Neanderthals and Denisovans.
This migration out of Africa is estimated to have
begun about 70,000 years BP. Modern humans subsequently
spread globally, replacing earlier hominins (either
through competition or hybridization). They inhabited
Eurasia and Oceania by 40,000 years BP, and the Americas
at least 14,500 years BP.
Evolution of the great apes
Evolutionary history of the primates can be traced
back 65 million years. The oldest known primate-like
mammal species, the Plesiadapis, came from North America,
but they were widespread in Eurasia and Africa during
the tropical conditions of the Paleocene and Eocene.
David Begun concluded that early primates flourished
in Eurasia and that a lineage leading to the African
apes and humans, including Dryopithecus, migrated south
from Europe or Western Asia into Africa. The surviving
tropical population of primates, which is seen most
completely in the upper Eocene and lowermost Oligocene
fossil beds of the Faiyum depression southwest of Cairo,
gave rise to all living species—lemurs of Madagascar,
lorises of Southeast Asia, galagos or "bush babies"
of Africa, and the anthropoids: platyrrhine or New World
monkeys, catarrhines or Old World monkeys, and the great
apes, including humans.
The earliest known catarrhine is Kamoyapithecus from
uppermost Oligocene at Eragaleit in the northern Kenya
Rift Valley, dated to 24 million years ago. Its
ancestry is thought to be species related to Aegyptopithecus,
Propliopithecus, and Parapithecus from the Fayum, at
around 35 million years ago. In 2010, Saadanius was
described as a close relative of the last common ancestor
of the crown catarrhines, and tentatively dated to 29–28
million years ago, helping to fill an 11-million-year
gap in the fossil record.
In the early Miocene, about 22 million years ago,
the many kinds of arboreally adapted primitive catarrhines
from East Africa suggest a long history of prior diversification.
Fossils at 20 million years ago include fragments attributed
to Victoriapithecus, the earliest Old World Monkey.
Among the genera thought to be in the ape lineage leading
up to 13 million years ago are Proconsul, Rangwapithecus,
Dendropithecus, Limnopithecus, Nacholapithecus, Equatorius,
Nyanzapithecus, Afropithecus, Heliopithecus, and Kenyapithecus,
all from East Africa. The presence of other generalized
non-cercopithecids of middle Miocene age from sites
far distant—Otavipithecus from cave deposits in Namibia,
and Pierolapithecus and Dryopithecus from France, Spain
and Austria—is evidence of a wide diversity of forms
across Africa and the Mediterranean basin during the
relatively warm and equable climatic regimes of the
early and middle Miocene. The youngest of the Miocene
hominoids, Oreopithecus, is from coal beds in Italy
that have been dated to 9 million years ago.
Molecular evidence indicates that the lineage of
gibbons (family Hylobatidae) diverged from Great Apes
some 18-12 million years ago, and that of orangutans
(subfamily Ponginae) diverged from the other Great Apes
at about 12 million years; there are no fossils that
clearly document the ancestry of gibbons, which may
have originated in a so-far-unknown South East Asian
hominoid population, but fossil proto-orangutans may
be represented by Sivapithecus from India and Griphopithecus
from Turkey, dated to around 10 million years ago.
Divergence of the human clade from other Great Apes
Species close to the last common ancestor of gorillas,
chimpanzees and humans may be represented by Nakalipithecus
fossils found in Kenya and Ouranopithecus found in Greece.
Molecular evidence suggests that between 8 and 4 million
years ago, first the gorillas, and then the chimpanzees
(genus Pan) split off from the line leading to the humans;
human DNA is approximately 98.4% identical to that of
chimpanzees when comparing single nucleotide polymorphisms
(see human evolutionary genetics). The fossil record
of gorillas and chimpanzees is limited. Both poor preservation
(rain forest soils tend to be acidic and dissolve bone)
and sampling bias probably contribute to this problem.
Other hominins likely adapted to the drier environments
outside the equatorial belt, along with antelopes, hyenas,
dogs, pigs, elephants, and horses. The equatorial belt
contracted after about 8 million years ago. There is
very little fossil evidence for the split of the hominin
lineage from the lineages of gorillas and chimpanzees.
The earliest fossils that have been argued to belong
to the human lineage are Sahelanthropus tchadensis (7
Ma) and Orrorin tugenensis (6 Ma), followed by Ardipithecus
(5.5–4.4 Ma), with species Ar. kadabba and Ar. ramidus.
Homo sapiens is the only extant species of its genus,
Homo. While some other, extinct Homo species might have
been ancestors of Homo sapiens, many were likely our
"cousins", having speciated away from our ancestral
line. There is not yet a consensus as to which of these
groups should count as separate species and which as
subspecies. In some cases this is due to the dearth
of fossils, in other cases it is due to the slight differences
used to classify species in the Homo genus. The Sahara
pump theory (describing an occasionally passable "wet"
Sahara Desert) provides one possible explanation of
the early variation in the genus Homo.
Based on archaeological and paleontological evidence,
it has been possible to infer, to some extent, the ancient
dietary practices of various Homo species and to study
the role of diet in physical and behavioral evolution
According to the Toba catastrophe theory to which
some anthropologists and archeologists subscribe, the
supereruption of Lake Toba on Sumatra island in Indonesia
roughly 70,000 years ago had global consequences, killing
most humans then alive and creating a population bottleneck
that affected the genetic inheritance of all humans
Use of tools
The use of tools has been interpreted as a sign of
intelligence, and it has been theorized that tool use
may have stimulated certain aspects of human evolution,
especially the continued expansion of the human brain.
Paleontology has yet to explain the expansion of this
organ over millions of years despite being extremely
demanding in terms of energy consumption. The brain
of a modern human consumes about 20 watts (400 kilocalories
per day), a fifth of body's total energy consumption.[citation
needed] Increased tool use would allow hunting for energy-rich
meat products, and would enable processing more energy-rich
plant products. Researchers have suggested that early
hominids were thus under evolutionary pressure to increase
their capacity to create and use tools.
Precisely when early humans started to use tools
is difficult to determine, because the more primitive
these tools are (for example, sharp-edged stones) the
more difficult it is to decide whether they are natural
objects or human artifacts. There is some evidence that
the australopithecines (4 Ma) may have used broken bones
as tools, but this is debated.
It should be noted that many species make and use
tools, but it is the human species that dominates the
areas of making and using more complex tools. The oldest
known tools are the "Oldowan stone tools" from Ethiopia,
2.5-2.6 million years old, which predates the earliest
known "Homo" species. There is no known evidence that
any "Homo" specimens appeared by 2.5 Ma. A Homo fossil
was found near some Oldowan tools, and its age was noted
at 2.3 million years old, suggesting that maybe the
Homo species did indeed create and use these tools.
It is a possibility but does not yet represent solid
evidence. Bernard Wood noted that "Paranthropus" co-existed
with the early Homo species in the area of the "Oldowan
Industrial Complex" over roughly the same span of time.
Although there is no direct evidence which identifies
Paranthropus as the tool makers, their anatomy lends
to indirect evidence of their capabilities in this area.
Most paleoanthropologists agree that the early "Homo"
species were indeed responsible for most of the Oldowan
tools found. They argue that when most of the Oldowan
tools were found in association with human fossils,
Homo was always present, but Paranthropus was not.
In 1994 Randall Susman used the anatomy of opposable
thumbs as the basis for his argument that both the Homo
and Paranthropus species were toolmakers. He compared
bones and muscles of human and chimpanzee thumbs, finding
that humans have 3 muscles which are lacking in chimpanzees.
Humans also have thicker metacarpals with broader heads,
allowing more precise grasping than the chimpanzee hand
can perform. Susman posited that modern anatomy of the
human thumb is an evolutionary response to the requirements
associated with making and handling tools and that both
species were indeed toolmakers.
Stone tools are first attested around 2.6 Ma, when
H. habilis in Eastern Africa used so-called pebble tools,
choppers made out of round pebbles that had been split
by simple strikes. This marks the beginning of the Paleolithic,
or Old Stone Age; its end is taken to be the end of
the last Ice Age, around 10,000 years ago. The Paleolithic
is subdivided into the Lower Paleolithic (Early Stone
Age, ending around 350,000–300,000 years ago), the Middle
Paleolithic (Middle Stone Age, until 50,000–30,000 years
ago), and the Upper Paleolithic.
The period from 700,000–300,000 years ago is also
known as the Acheulean, when H. ergaster (or erectus)
made large stone hand axes out of flint and quartzite,
at first quite rough (Early Acheulian), later "retouched"
by additional, more subtle strikes at the sides of the
flakes. After 350,000 BP (Before Present) the more refined
so-called Levallois technique was developed, a series
of consecutive strikes, by which scrapers, slicers ("racloirs"),
needles, and flattened needles were made. Finally, after
about 50,000 BP, ever more refined and specialized flint
tools were made by the Neanderthals and the immigrant
Cro-Magnons (knives, blades, skimmers). In this period
they also started to make tools out of bone.
Transition to behavioral modernity
Until about 50,000–40,000 years ago the use of stone
tools seems to have progressed stepwise. Each phase
(H. habilis, H. ergaster, H. neanderthalensis) started
at a higher level than the previous one, but after each
phase started, further development was slow. Currently
paleoanthropologists are debating whether these Homo
species possessed some or many of the cultural and behavioral
traits associated with modern humans such as language,
complex symbolic thinking, technological creativity
etc. It seems that they were culturally conservative
maintaining simple technologies and foraging patterns
over very long periods. Around 50,000 BP modern human
culture started to evolve more rapidly. The transition
to behavioral modernity has been characterized as a
"Great Leap Forward", or as the "Upper Palaeolithic
Revolution", because of the sudden appearance of distinctive
signs of modern behavior in the archaeological record.
Some scholars consider the transition to have been more
gradual, with some features already appearing among
Archaic Homo sapiens already around 200,000 years ago.
Modern humans started burying their dead, using animal
hides to make clothing, hunting with more sophisticated
techniques (such as using trapping pits or driving animals
off cliffs), and engaging in cave painting. As human
culture advanced, different populations of humans introduced
novelty to existing technologies: artifacts such as
fish hooks, buttons and bone needles show signs of variation
among different populations of humans, something that
had not been seen in human cultures prior to 50,000
BP. Typically, H. neanderthalensis populations do not
vary in their technologies.
Among concrete examples of Modern human behavior,
anthropologists include specialization of tools, use
of jewellery and images (such as cave drawings), organization
of living space, rituals (for example, burials with
grave gifts), specialized hunting techniques, exploration
of less hospitable geographical areas, and barter trade
networks. Debate continues as to whether a "revolution"
led to modern humans ("the big bang of human consciousness"),
or whether the evolution was more gradual.
Human Evolution: helpful links
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Time Tree. 2009. Retrieved December 2010.
Java Man, Curtis, Swisher and Lewin, ISBN 0-349-11473-0
Stringer, C.B. (1994). "Evolution of Early Humans".
In Steve Jones, Robert Martin & David Pilbeam. The Cambridge
Encyclopedia of Human Evolution. Cambridge: Cambridge
University Press. p. 242. ISBN 978-0-521-32370-3. Also
ISBN 978-0-521-46786-5 (paperback)
McHenry, H.M (2009). "Human Evolution". In Michael
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Years. Cambridge, Massachusetts: The Belknap Press of
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